Funding tracks

To support technologies at different stages of development, we purchase carbon removal via two funding tracks.

Track 1: Prepurchase

For early-stage suppliers piloting new technologies, Frontier offers low-volume prepurchase agreements to accelerate development. Suppliers receive funds upfront, before tons have actually been delivered.



Frontier conducts a prepurchase cycle once a year. We are currently reviewing applications for our 2024 cycle. Purchases will be announced in September.

You might be a good fit if:

  • You have lab-scale performance and preliminary stability data showing a proof of concept.

  • Your Measurement, Reporting, Verification (MRV) approach is outlined, risks are identified, and a method is presented for reducing MRV uncertainty.

  • Technoeconomic Analysis (TEA) is based on a process flow diagram and mass and energy balance.

  • You can deliver first tons in the next ~1-3 years.

Track 2: Offtake

For larger suppliers preparing to scale, Frontier facilitates offtake agreements. These are legally binding contracts to buy future tons of carbon removal at an agreed price if and when delivered. This purchase track will make up the bulk of Frontier’s spend.


Frontier accepts offtake applications on a rolling basis.

You might be a good fit if:

  • The tech has been validated at the bench or preferably small pilot scale.

  • Your MRV protocol addresses all key pathway uncertainties and establishes a plan to further reduce uncertainties.

  • A high-fidelity TEA based on a pre-FEED design or similar is presented.

  • You can deliver meaningful volume (10k tons or more) within the next 5 years.

If you’re not sure which track is right for you, please get in touch.

How we evaluate projects

We use three lenses to make purchasing decisions:


Does the carbon removal approach meet our target criteria?


Can this team deliver on the proposal, given where the technology is today?


Does this purchase help us build a diverse, risk-adjusted portfolio of carbon removal approaches?

Target criteria

DurabilityStores carbon permanently (>1,000 years)
Physical footprintTakes advantage of carbon sinks and sources that do not compete for arable land
CostHas a path to being affordable at scale (<$100 per ton)
CapacityHas a path to being a meaningful part of the carbon removal solution portfolio (>0.5 gigatons per year)
Net negativityMaximizes net removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide
AdditionalityResults in net new carbon removed, rather than taking credit for removal that was already going to occur
VerifiabilityHas a path to using scientifically rigorous and transparent methods for monitoring and verification
Safety and legalityIs working towards the highest standards of safety, compliance and local environmental outcomes; actively mitigates risks and negative environmental and other externalities on an ongoing basis

We’re especially excited about projects addressing areas listed in the carbon removal knowledge gap database.

Frequently asked questions

How frequently does Frontier make prepurchase and offtake selections?
Frontier issues an RFP for prepurchases and makes company selections once per year. For offtakes, Frontier reviews projects and makes purchases on a regular, rolling basis.
How should I engage with Frontier before the prepurchase cycle begins?
First, familiarize yourself with our target criteria. If you think you might be a good fit, please get in touch with the Frontier team to let us know you’re considering applying ( There will be a number of opportunities to connect with the team ahead of applying, including office hours and application support sessions.
Does Frontier provide guidance on how to submit a competitive application?
Yes. During purchase cycles we offer application support sessions for projects that are invited to apply, with the goal of helping every candidate submit as compelling an application as possible.
Which type of technologies are out of scope for Frontier?
Because of Frontier's target criteria above, we do not consider the following (not because we don’t think they’re critically important, but because they’re simply not our area of focus):
  • Afforestation and reforestation
  • Coastal restoration (blue carbon)
  • Organic soil carbon
  • Projects that avoid the emission of carbon dioxide, such as carbon capture and storage from anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide
I think I meet Frontier’s CDR criteria. Is a purchase guaranteed?
No. We evaluate purchase decisions using the three lenses described above. While we conduct a formal scientific review process and do our best to be as objective as possible, this field is nascent with real uncertainties. We use both data and judgment to make decisions, with the goal of maturing a portfolio of solutions to get permanent carbon removal on its best possible trajectory.
What does a Frontier purchase agreement look like?
Our prepurchase contract template can be found here. We do make updates from cycle to cycle, but this provides the gist of our agreements.
We are currently developing the offtake agreement with the goal of making it maximally accelerative for carbon removal, and plan to share more publicly soon.
Should I reach out to individual Frontier buyers or Frontier directly with my project information?
Please reach out to
How can I stay up to date on future purchase cycles?
We’ll share updates on this page. You can also request to join our mailing list at
Can I share suggestions for making Frontier’s process better?
Absolutely. Please share any feedback at


Past applications

View our open source project applications.

Read applications
Specific questions

Let us know if you have any questions.

Get in touch